This course introduces a phasor representation of sinusoidal functions from advanced mathematical analysis.  Power calculations are implemented by the phasor method; Average and root mean squared quantities are derived.  Topics such as resonance, bandwidth, Q-factor, power factor and locus diagrams are developed along with their relevant mathematical calculations.

The construction and operation of Diacs, Triacs, and Thyristors are examined.  Clipping and clamping circuits, Miller’s capacitance, Bode plots, lead-, lag- and lead-lag combination circuits, Cascade and cascode amplifiers and the differential amplifier are examined.  The operational amplifier and power amplifiers are also examined.

The structure, properties and operation of different types of analogue instruments are compared and contrasted.  Digital instruments are also examined; the loading effects of both types of instrument are compared and highlighted.  The construction, operation and versatility of the cathode oscilloscope are shown.

In this course the student designs, develops and presents a project, applying the theoretical and practical knowledge and skills acquired during the programme.  The student must conduct research, and must demonstrate innovation, time management, record keeping and good communication skills.


This course introduces a variety of network theorems and analysis methods for application in linear passive circuits with multi-power supplies.  Emphasis is placed on Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Superposition’s and Maximum Power Transfer theorems and their most appropriate use in the calculation of current, voltage, energy and power in circuits with a maximum of three loops.  Star-Delta and Delta-Star transformations are used for the simplification of circuits.  The DC properties of different types of diode are examined and the concepts biasing and load line are introduced.  Bipolar and Field Effect Transistors are analysed with respect to their load lines.  AC models are developed for the transistor amplifiers and circuit parameters such as gain, input and output currents and voltages are calculated.

This course introduces binary arithmetic and number systems to various bases.  The functions of the inverter (NOT gate), AND, OR, NAND, NOR, Half Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtractor and Full Subtractor are derived.  Combinational logic is implemented with the use of truth tables, Boolean algebra, DeMorgan’s theorem and tabular methods.  Decoders, encoders, demultiplexers and multiplexers are examined and their operations and implementations are shown.

A development of the properties of S-R, J-K, T and D flip-flops and their applications to registers, shift registers and counters is carried out.  An explanation and the construction of sequential logic circuits using Mealey, Moore, and Mealy-Moore machines’ principles are implemented.

A block diagram of a microcomputer system illustrating the address bus, data bus and control bus is drawn.  The course also examines the architecture of 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors, recognising their data transfer between registers, between CPU and memory, between CPU and input/output ports and direct memory accessing.  For modern computers, the terms, cache memory, pipelining, enhanced IDE hard drive and SCSI are explained.  Some programming is done in a high-level language, assembly language and machine code (hexadecimal) and their relative advantages and disadvantages are used and demonstrated.

This course is designed to introduce students to the operating systems of computers.  This includes the fundamental structure of a computer system and logic frameworks.  Students will initially be instructed in the writing of algorithms and flowcharts.  Algorithms and flowcharts will then be converted into computer programs using higher-level languages such as PASCAL and FORTRAN.

This course is designed to offer further exposure to the application of computer programming in solving mathematical and engineering problems.  Students are also introduced to the higher-level computer language C++.

This course introduces students to the nature of common materials used in the electrical and electronic industry.  It examines the underlying principles controlling the electrical properties of these materials to show how and why current flows in some materials and not in others.  The atomic structure of metals and semiconductors, the logic of dimensional analysis and the macroscopic study of circuits are covered in this course.  Circuit analysis is carried out by the application of Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws to solve problems with various circuit configurations.

This course develops the concept of mutual inductance from the application of Lenz’s and Faraday’s laws.  The theory is then used to develop models of constant voltage transformers at line and high frequencies.  Concepts of referring impedances to the primary and secondary windings are introduced.  With the aid of phasor diagrams and graphs, various calculations of voltage regulation, power, efficiency and bandwidth are made.  Ideas of point charge and unit charge are introduced.  Coulomb’s law, Field Theory, Gauss Flux theorem, calculus, Kirchhoff’s laws, Ampere’s theorem and Biot Savart’s law are studied and used for related calculations.

This course introduces the concept of three phase generators and loads.  The j and 120 operators, along with Millman’s theorem, phasor diagrams and other analysis tools are used to solve circuit problems involving current, voltage and power in unbalanced loads.  Graphs and phasor diagrams are developed.  Blondell’s theorem is stated and utilised.  Concepts of networks and the solutions of network problems are dealt with.  Two-port network properties are explored and a model of transmission line is developed.

Theories, construction and operation of DC and AC motors and generators are introduced.  Self-excited and separately excited DC generators are described along with their graphical characteristics. Series, shunt and compound would motors’ speed characteristics, load currents and applications are derived. Calculations of the various motors’ parameters are made to effect solutions to problems.  Brief descriptive and quantitative treatments of the operation, speed characteristics and applications of synchronous and induction motors and generators are given.  Their equivalent models developed.  Calculations of the machine parameters are made.